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Legacy Library

APA Quick Guide: 7th Edition: Dissecting a Citation

Elements of the Reference List Entries




Publishing Information

URL/DOI (if applicable)


Single Author

Provide the author's name in reversed order (Surname, First Initials). Give the full name as provided on the publication; do not shorten or abbreviate the name. Reversed order facilitates an alphabetical listing in the Reference list of the paper.

Example: Dickens, C. 

Multiple Authors

Provide the author's names in reversed order, preceding each name with a comma and the final name with an ampersand. 

Example: Mathews, L. A., Cabarcas, S. & Hurt, E.


Transcribe the title of the publication or article as given on the item. Include any final punctuation that is part of the title. Title and Subtitle are separated by a colon.

Use standard 'title capitalization.' Capitalize the first word and last word of the title and all other words except: 

  • articles
  • prepositions
  • coordinating conjunctions
  • 'to' used in an infinitive

Publication Title

The title of the entire publication (book, journal, web site, etc.) is given in italics. Take the title from the title page of the publication.

Example: Why It's Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions.

Article Title

The title of an article is not italicized, however the journal, newspaper, magazine, or website the article was published in is italicized.


Shin Splints- Symptoms and Causes. Mayo Clinic.

Publication Information

Provide the name of the publisher. The location of the publisher is not necessary in APA 7th edition.


Serial Numbering


Provide the volume number. If the serial uses only sequential issue numbers without a volume number, omit the volume number.


If the serial numbers issues within each volume, provide the issue number following a period.


Provide the year, month date for newspaper and magazine articles. For journal articles, provide the year and month. Do not abbreviate the month. 

Example: (2020, April 4).

(2017, December).

Additional Elements


Including the DOI or URL is also recommended by APA when citing online sources.


Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of Page. Site Name. URL

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, October. 4). Influenza. Mayo Clinic.