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APA Quick Guide: 7th Edition: In-Text Citations

In-Text Citation Basics

In-text citations are important to include in the body of a paper because they identify the source referenced or the quotation used. The source is fully documented on the "Reference" page. The author's name and date (McCullough, 2019) are used when the source has been paraphrased. When using direct quotes, add the page number (McCullough, 2019, p. 108).

For example: 

According to David McCullough (2019), "St. Clair's Defeat, as the battle came to be known, had been a total disaster, worse than any suffered by the American army during the entire Revolution" (p. 108).


The disastrous loss, which was deadlier than any battle fought by the Continental Army in the Revolution, was later referred to as the unflattering "St. Clair's Defeat" (McCullough, 2019, p. 108). 



McCullough, D. (2019). The Pioneers: the Heroic Story of the Settlers Who Brought the American Ideal West. Simon & Schuster.


For digital sources, or sources without page numbers, cite the paragraph used.

For example: (Williams, n.d., para. 3). 



Source with Multiple Authors

Source with two authors:

(Crabtree and Beudert, 14).


Source with three or more authors:

(Evans et al., 133).

Corporate Author

When the author is an organization, use the full title in the first citation, then abbreviate the title in subsequent citations.

For example:

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2018).

(APA, 2018).

Citation Managers

Citation Management Tools

Free tools to assist you in the creation and management of citations in MLA style, APA style, and other formats.